Theories/Explanations why Cities originated:



1. Agricultural Surplus:

Production of more food than was needed, created necessity for centralized structures to administer New social institutions needed to assign rights over resources Created greater degree of occupational specialization in non-agricultural activities. Organization needed an urban setting



2. Hydrological factors:

Early cities emerged in areas of irrigated agri. Elaborate irrigation practices required new divisions of labor, large scale cooperation, and more cultivation Led to occupational specialization, then centralized social organization Hence urban development



3. Population Pressures:

Attributes cities to increasing population densities and growing scarcity of wild food thus a transition to agricultural production, and urban specialization of labor


4. Trading Requirements: Cities are a function of long-distance trade. Need for a system to administer large-scale exchange of goods – promoted development of centralized structures Increasing occupational specialization would encourage urban development Theory supported by the many urban centers around marketplaces.


5. Defense needs:

Cities are a function of need for people to gather together for protection. Cities located on strategic places (hills) where could spot enemy at distance Most cities had walls.



6. Religious Causes: Control of Altar offerings by the religious elite – gave them economic and political power Power was used to influence social organization – initiated urban dev.